the Agriculture is the basic employment of the person from first days of a civilisation. It gives us the food most part, and also raw materials for manufacturing of clothes and many industrial goods.
From 10 to 12 thousand years ago in mankind development there was a big jump. The person has found out that can not only extract livelihood by collecting and hunting, but also to grow up plants from seeds and to plant animals in bondage. Agriculture has allowed people to pass to a settled way of life and not to wander in search of food. Soon farmers already made more foodstuffs, than could consume that has liberated many of them for employment by crafts and art, having made possible civilisation development as we understand it today.
In some developing countries, such as Nepal, on the earth works about 90 percent of the population. For comparison, in industrially developed countries, such as Great Britain and the USA, on farms it is occupied only 2-3 percent of able-bodied population. Nevertheless, thanks to the highly effective technologies using last achievements of a science, the USA are the leading exporter of the foodstuffs. In developing countries the most part of people is occupied by a subsistence economy, they make enough products only for needs of the family, and on sale at them almost remains nothing. In the developed countries the majority of farms - commercial, that is selling the production for money.
In developing countries there are tribes, for example, pygmies and bushmeny in Africa which conduct a way of life, almost nothing different from dominating on our planet before agriculture occurrence. Some of such tribes are engaged in primitive cattle breeding - nomadic vypasom a horned cattle, goats and sheep, others - replaceable agriculture which is called still podsechnoognevym. This type of processing of soil assumes clearing (burning out) of a site in wood or on a meadow and sowing of cultures within several years. When the soil will be exhausted, "ъюёхт№х" farmers move on "чхышэѕ". All these simple forms of agriculture assume moving of people. But many farmers who are engaged in a subsistence economy in developing countries, conduct a settled way of life, usually on small grounds. Today some of them, besides products for own consumption, grow up a crop on sale. Though the subsistence economy remains to one of the basic employment of the population of the tropical countries, plantatsionnoe the agriculture works mostly for export, playing their economy the vital role.
the Commodity farms using scientific methods, are the basic form of agriculture of the developed countries. These are averages and the large-scale farms making cereal and olive cultures, the sadovo-garden economy which are growing up on sale vegetables, flowers and fruit, dairy farms, ranch, and also the mixed economy (combining agriculture and animal industries).
In some countries, including Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany and the USA, groups of farmers voluntary unite in co-operative societies. From it they, as a rule, only win. Many farmers enter also marketing co-operative societies which incur sale of their production while other organisations help to find financing and to get the equipment.
Other form of conducting the agriculture, practised in China and countries of Eastern Europe are collective farms. Unlike co-operative farming, collective farms have been imposed in due time peasants there where the rigid control over manufacture of agricultural products and the prices for it were a state policy part.
The Collective agriculture was sharply reduced on a boundary of 80 and 90th years, especially in the USSR and the countries of Eastern Europe which have departed from is command-management system in economy. The discontent with a mode in these countries has been in many respects caused by communism bankruptcies. So, in the USSR collective farmers were authorised to process own small plots of the earth though the basic time they should work in collective farms. These "ышёэ№х §юч щё=тр" occupied only 3% of agricultural grounds, but gave about 30% of agricultural products of the country. At the same time crops in collective farms remained low that compelled the USSR to import the foodstuffs from other countries, in particular from the USA.
Production on sale
The Type of production which is grown up in any certain district, depends on a number of factors, including a climate, environment and water presence. Business factors as it is necessary for farmers to receive the income of use of the earth are important also. Therefore on the decision of farmers what to make, market prices and manufacture cost, and also the politician of the government, including target grants for influence growing up (or, on the contrary, not to grow up - in order to avoid overproduction) certain cultures.
Behind an exception vysokospetsializirovannogo plantatsionnogo agriculture, the earth is seldom used under any one culture. The majority of types of economy use this or that form of a crop rotation. It means alternation on the same site of grown up cultures and grasses. Such system allows to support fertility of the earth and simultaneously to keep high productivity. The arable land, that is the earth which plough up and sow for crop cultivation, makes about the one tenth world land. More than 66% of an arable land are occupied by cereal (grain) cultures. As importance it is wheat (22%), rice (13%), corn (11%) and sorgo (10%). The other grain include barley, millet, an oats and a rye.
the Important cultures
Olive cultures (the sunflower, a soya, raps, etc.) from which vegetable oil is made, represent the following important group of plants. Under these cultures 7% of an arable land are occupied. In total about 5% it is occupied under cultivation of not grocery group - a clap, tobacco and rubber-bearing plants. Considerable grounds are taken away under a grass as pastures (as a rule, it is the earth unsuitable for cultivation, and in the sum it occupies about 20% of a world land). The agricultural products play the important role in world trade. Large-scale trade in food and other agricultural products has begun in XIX century with development of railways and occurrence of the ships, capable to deliver great volumes of the goods, and also with the invention of refrigerators. This shift meant possibility of regular deliveries of inexpensive products, such as meat, dairy products, fruit, coffee and tea, for the population of fast-growing industrial cities of the Western Europe.
The Agriculture is one of key sectors of economy and the basic employer in developing countries. For last 30 years, however, many of these countries have been compelled to limit foodstuffs export. Partially it has been caused by prompt growth of their population for which it is required more and more products. Other factors which negatively influence an agricultural production, political instability, civil wars and natural cataclysms, such as droughts and flooding are.
The Prices for the agricultural production made in developing countries, concerning the prices for the industrial goods also steadily go down. Though there are the long-term contracts establishing the prices for such products as cocoa, sugar and coffee, their primary goal is prevention of an instability of prices, than increase of relative cost of agricultural products faster.
As a result of action of set of these factors, and also high levels of crops in the developed countries, the last dominate in international trade in agricultural products. On the developed countries it is necessary more than 70% of world agricultural import and about 60% of export. Leading exporters of agricultural products are the USA, the EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY countries, Australia and Canada. The main importers are an EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, the USA and Japan. The basic place in world trade is occupied with grain products. Though rice is the grain culture second for value, on the world markets its rather small quantity gets. It occurs because China and India, leading manufacturers of rice and the states most occupied in the world, require all rice made by them for needs of the quickly increasing population. As a result wheat which is grown up both in developed, and in developing countries, is the basic agricultural goods in world trade.
Historically, agriculture development has always been closely connected with growth of the world population. Progress in agriculture - for example, the invention irrigatsii - inevitably leads to increase in manufacture of foodstuff. The population as a result grows, and the agricultural sector is compelled to search for more and more effective methods of manufacture.
In 1991 the planet population made 5,4 billion person. According to the United Nations, it will grow to 10,2 billion by 2075, and even earlier. Rates of increase much above in developing countries, where shortage pishcheproduktov - much more frequent javljaenie, than in the developed states in which the population remains stable.
To meet a population explosion of last 30 years fully armed, it has been made much for agricultural production increase in developing countries, where productivity usually more low, than in the countries with the developed economy. In Pakistan, for example, in 3,5 times there are more than pastures and in 1,5 times of more cows, than in Wisconsin which is in the lead on manufacture of milk state of USA. But makes Pakistan four times less milk, than Wisconsin. For increase of efficiency of dairy sector to Pakistan are necessary vysokoudojnye cows. To achieve it it is possible only by selection.
"Гхыхэр Ёхтюы¦чш "
In 1960th years the scale international campaign known under the name "чхыхэр Ёхтюы¦чш " has begun;. Expansion of a high-quality variety of traditional cultures and productivity growth in developing countries became its result.
But new grades have caused also problems. In particular, it is necessary for them of more fertilizers, than old, and they are more vulnerable for wreckers and illnesses. As a result it is required much more pesticides that creates threat for environment. In some regions introduction of new grades of plants leads to social problems: large landowners in a greater degree win from "чхыхэющ Ёхтюы¦чшш" than poor farmers whom modest incomes of tiny sites do not allow to apply necessary fertilizers and pesticides.
One more problem facing to agricultural sector, consists that the majority of the suitable earths is already used.
Use new, marginalnyh the earths (i.e. What quality does not promise to the big profit) which can be attached mainly at the expense of cutting down of woods and raspashki slopes of hills, creates ecological risk, in particular, because of threat of soil erosion. Actually this threat already really exists concerning very considerable quantity of the arable and pasturable earths.
In the early nineties Fao (the Food and agricultural organisation of the United Nations) has counted up that during the following of 35 years erosion, high salinity of soils as a result of wrong water use on the irrigated earths and shortage of water can simply deduce from a production cycle to 2,45 million in sq. km of the earth.
Adequately to accept a call of realities of the XXI-st century, the world agriculture should pass everywhere to scientific management of ground resources, and achievements of science and technology to make accessible to all countries and manufacturers.