"¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page "¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page "¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page "¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page "¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page "¤ырэх=р Гхьы " - the main page

the Rural life in the developed countries

ru - de - by - en - ua - es - fr

At times it seems that over traditional English village with its church, a tavern and picturesque constructions time not imperiously, but the industrial revolution which has begun in the end of XVIII century, has essentially changed a life has sat down.

Once rural communities lived separately and satisfied all requirements. Peasants fed earth and craft processing. When Europeans have started to master new continents, they lodged the same as have got used at home, in villages. The basic population of settlement was made by peasants and their hired workers, here there lived smiths, innkeepers, priests, and at the head of a rural community often there was a local landowner - just as in the Middle Ages, during a feudalism epoch.

Almost all villages of today's England are based till 1086 when William the Conqueror has made the first ground inventory. And up to XVIII century when time of main recesses has come, from century to century lived in the old manner. The invariable way of life in the big degree was promoted by disconnexion from an external world. On thin loshadenke or to steam of an oxen on nasty road far you will not leave, because and manufacture was conducted not for all country and not for import, but only for itself and neighbours.

Some lines are typical for all rural settlements, therefore geographers have allocated two basic types of rural moving - settlements with compact or chaotic building. In settlement with chaotic building of a farmstead are located far apart. So happens there where peasants put houses not abreast, and in the middle of the earths or it is lengthways expensive. Compact building is inherent in settlements where apartment houses disperse from any central point: people lodged about the bridge or near crossroads of roads, or, as in fishing small villages, on the bank of a gulf. Our ancestors, choosing a place for settlement, always considered a relief and other natural features of district.


Where there were villages?

In Europe and all over the world villages, as a rule, were under construction near sources of water or at tops of hills that facilitated defence against enemy intrusion and rescued from harmful evaporations of bogs. Probably, most typical European villages are that expanded round a central square, here (on open district) gathered for descents, dug a pond or a well, and in due course erected church.

Where there were villages? in XVIII century changes in rural way have begun. Under the influence of a number of factors former isolation and self-sufficiency of villages began to depart in the past. In 1800 about 20% of the population of England already lived in cities (today this indicator exceeds 90%). An urbanization - i.e. Growth of cities and a city way of life - has captured developed countries all nowadays, including late enough mastered by immigrants from Europe Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America.

The main recess on village was that the earth has ceased to be a source of incomes of a considerable part of the population. With arrival of rational methods of managing and agricultural machinery crops have increased, and thousand peasants have ceased to kowtow on fields.


Disappearance of crafts

With reduction of workplaces recession and in crafts serving it was outlined in agriculture. Some crafts in general have disappeared because of arrival of new technologies. Earlier in-home weaved a cloth and made utensils, in the village cooked beer and carried grain on a mill, now all it has left in the past - or in cities. Well, where now you will come across a smithy with the smith Jack of all trades? And here workshops on repair of agricultural machinery and mechanics in a countryside though take away.

Industrial revolution has led also to considerable improvements in sphere of transport and communications. Became expensive better, the regular message with cities was adjusted, in villages began to carry all necessary, and on change to workshops rural umeltsev benches where traded in everything have come, than the city, and even was rich with that was brought from the distant countries.


Resettlement in cities

Owing to revolutionary changes in agriculture peasants were in large quantities pulled in cities where they were waited by work on manufacture or in quickly growing sphere of service. First this resettlement has captured Britain, France, Belgium and Germany, and then and Greece less developed industrially, Italy and Spain.

However, in the south of Europe to people till now to liking rural way, after all not so simply to come off the native earth. Many go to cities not on a constant residence, and is simple on earnings to support the family which has remained in village and to collect the treasured sum on purchase of own house with the ground area. Inhabitants of poor villages dream of it in the south of Italy, lasting to industrial northern areas with hope to return grown rich. But then much the city life starts to be pleasant, and after much persuasion to them their rural relatives move.


Emigration

Events of last two centuries have forced millions European peasants to search happiness in far America, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Southern Africa. Many settled at once in ports, for example, in New York or Sydney. Other the habitual rural life, on the contrary, was closer, and they developed the new earths, creating settlements together with the compatriots. So there were places of compact residing of natives of Holland and Germany in American state Pennsylvania, Swedes - in Wisconsin and Norwegians - in Minnesota. Many went for ocean, escaping from prosecutions for creed, and in a New World joined the religious communities or created them. So, among the first immigrants to New England there were many puritans, Catholics have located in staff of Merilend, and to Pennsylvania Quakers were pulled.

In 1830th adherents of Church of Jesus Christ Svjatyh of last days, usually named Mormons, escaping from persecutions, have left far on the West of America, to Utah where have based many settlements. Each of them was built up under the accurate plan, with a meeting-house, a premise for meetings and school in the center. The first settlers in Israel, basing so-called. kibutsy (rural co-operative farms), were equipped not less carefully, taking into account the newest methods of rural building.


Settlements of trailblazers

Nevertheless, at the time of development of the new earths the majority of settlements developed chaotically. At first country families built farm, and in due course in the most convenient place the small town where farmers often came on the essential affairs grew.

Many big cities of America once were the boundary settlements erected along the rivers or railways as time havens for trailblazers on a way to uninhabited territories. Here and there settlements of gold diggers and miners till now have remained, and some of them have kept the shape invariable up to our days: wide street in the middle, the smoked houses similar against each other in one floor, taverns, little shops...


Modern trends

For last 30 years the urban population share has increased in economically developed countries even more. In some states countrymen make only a little bit of the population. For example, as of the beginning 90, outside of cities (big and small) lived only 8% of British, and all 2% worked on the earth. In the USA in a countryside till now lives to 26% of the population, but on agricultural sector it is necessary no more 2% a labour.

However, last years other tendency was outlined also. Many townspeople were disappointed with their vital way: they have got a bit tired from narrowness, impurities of the city environment and criminality and turn the looks towards natural landscapes. Almost all have cars - so why not to leave for the weekend somewhere far away, on pure air? Among fans of a country life in France, seaside Brittany is especially popular in Germans - woody Schwarzwald, and in England - Lake-land in the northwest.

Pluses and tourism minuses. As consequence, draught of townspeople for villages became a source of incomes for countrymen. On the other hand, rural tourism has threatened destructions the wild nature in most beauty spots. For example, 11 national reserves of England annually visit over 103 million tourists. So high popularity of forest-park complexes strongly complicates their functioning and protection. Nevertheless, according to the British statistics, in Lake-land of 30% of the population are occupied in tourism sphere. Besides, development of this branch has brought also other blessings: traditional applied arts and crafts have revived, release of souvenir production grows, and the gain from tourism fills up local budgets and finances public utilities that, in turn, raises level of services.


Environmental problems

However abundantly clear that tourism development has complicated a life of farmers. Crowds of fans of the pedestrian walks tread a grass and by that increase a soil erosion, water kinds of sports inevitably conduct to pollution of reservoirs, and halts and picnics on the nature do not go on advantage to wood flora and fauna.

Other changes in village are connected with change of structure of employment, especially with industrial production reduction, occurrence of a considerable quantity of the free time, promptly growing "рт=юьюсшышчрчшхщ" the population. All listed transformations were primary factors of moving of many city dwellers in rural areas.


Pendular migrations

Not all, however, are ready to say goodbye to cities where the life all the same is more sated, it is possible to buy simply a small house in village, kilometres in hundred from work, and to go there and back, spending for road 3-4 hours per day. As the result, not one picturesque village has turned in "ёярыіэ№щ Ёрщюэ" for those who works in a city.

Other townspeople within working week live in the city apartments, and for the weekend and in holiday go in the house got in the country. So many Germans and Swedes do, and in Canada has become fashionable to put far in mountains timbered sruby in ancient style. Demand of townspeople for rural houses has inevitably risen in the price for the country real estate therefore houses in an attractive countryside it become too expensive for local residents. At times there are conflicts and other sort: for example, inhabitants vallijskoj remote places aspire to keep the language and culture and are not very glad to alien house owners and summer residents with their indifference to local customs.


the Quiet old age

Outflow of inhabitants of cities in village also was promoted by pensioners. If you all life of veins also worked in a city why on an old age of years not to get over in a place more silently and more purely, for example, there where had a rest during holiday earlier? The number of the elderly pairs buying the houses in Spain grows in Britain. And beyond Atlantic, in solar Florida, there are whole settlements where the overwhelming majority of inhabitants is made by men and women of a pension age. As consequence, in villages, as a matter of fact, live townspeople - or were (nowadays pensioners), or working in a city, and original rural way you will meet unless somewhere in remote places as it is possible further from a civilisation.

Locks on doors once brisk benches Hang (have burnt through, after all nearby now a supermarket), buses (and what for if almost all have cars do not go?), rural schools are closed, and kiddies should go for study goodness knows where, and to old men from aboriginals hardly to do without the help of neighbours and relatives... The Old village has disappeared, and its village now will not name: it already even not city suburb and not suburb, and quite arranged well suburb.