the Modern industrial society spends an energy large quantity. Serious fears are caused by a problem of an exhaustion and rational use of its stocks.
In spite of the fact that in Canada, the USA, Japan and countries of Western Europe lives only 12,5% of the population of the Earth, on their share 60% of world power resources are necessary. And on the contrary, the remained countries, which population reaches 87,5% of inhabitants of a planet, consume only 40% of these resources. The most part of world's reserves of energy is connected with fossil kinds of fuel (coal, oil and natural gas). Now stocks of such fuel are reduced by terrifying rates.
Inhabitants of the poorest countries mostly use renewed energy sources, such as wood and manure. However today it is obviously not enough of them for satisfaction of needs of the population of all planet which annually increases approximately by 90 million persons.
There are also almost inexhaustible energy sources. The mankind hurries up to learn them to use before stocks of fossil fuel will be exhausted.
Coal provides about 35% of energy developed in the world. It began to be applied before other kinds of fossil fuel. The most part of deposits of coal was formed during the coal period (286-360 million years ago) as a result of decomposition of treelike ferns and other plants of primitive rainforests which, possibly, grew in marshland. In the course of rotting of substance of a phytogenesis turned to peat (in separate areas it occurs and today), then gradually hardened, forming lignit brown coal, and, at last, turned to coal.
The Major element as a part of coal is carbon. The most ancient and firmest breeds of coal anthracites contain about 98% of carbon, lignity (which age does not exceed 1 million years) only 30%.
Coal World's reserves are huge. By last estimations, industrial stocks make about 910 billion tons and if here to add the coal deposits which working out is economically unprofitable this figure will increase approximately to 1800 billion tons. At present rates of consumption of these stocks years will suffice on 200 with superfluous. About 85% of deposits of coal are concentrated in China, the former Soviet Union and the USA. And in the USA there are 30-35% of its world's reserves.
Oil provides about 40% of energy developed in the world. It was formed much millions years ago as a result of decomposition of a plankton of tiny sea animals and plants. Oil and natural gas name hydrocarbons as they consist of two elements of hydrogen and carbon. Oil the most important and most convenient of modern kinds of fuel. Such mineral oil as gasoline and diesel fuel, are used for automobile and lorries and diesel locomotives. This substance is widely applied in the industry, agriculture, and also as the important raw materials to manufacture of paints, cosmetics, medicines, dyes, fertilizers, fibres, plastic and synthetic rubber. Many inhabited and industrial buildings are warmed with black oil coppers. Stocks and an oil recovery are measured in barrels (1 barrel=159.
oil Deposits are found out on each continent and at the bottom of world ocean, but its basic stocks are concentrated in several areas. So, in the Near East there are 65% of world's reserves of oil, and the lion's share here belongs to Saudi Arabia. After opening there new deposits in 1990 the general stocks of oil of this country have made over 300 billion barrels, or about a quarter of all world resources. Other stocks are distributed as follows: in other countries of Asia there are approximately 4% of world's reserves, in Latin America about 13% (half from them in Venezuela and almost half in Mexico), in Canada and the USA about 4%, in Africa of 6% (basically in Libya, other countries of the North Africa and Nigeria).
In Europe and the Asian part of Russia there are approximately 9% of world's reserves of oil, mainly in territory of the former Soviet Union and at the bottom of the North Sea.
Almost not reconnoitered source of oil are bituminoznye, or petrocontaining, sand. The largest deposit of such sand is in Albert's province (Canada) and under the oil maintenance is equated to oil pools of Saudi Arabia.
In three regions of the world in the Near East, in Africa and Latin America the oil recovery exceeds its consumption. The largest consumers are the USA, Canada, Japan and Europe.
In 1990th the daily expense of oil in the USA and Canada made about 13 million barrels, and extraction about 8 million barrels. All European countries, including the former Soviet Union, consumed 22 million more barrels a day. The world oil recovery made about 61 million barrels a day, from them 11 million barrels extracted in the former USSR.
Such difference between extraction and oil consumption is fraught with disputed political situations. When in 1990 Iraq has intruded in Kuwait, threatening thus to oil deposits of Saudi Arabia, the largest consumers of oil have interfered with the conflict to protect own interests, and also interests of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States.
Natural gas provides about 20% of energy developed in the world. It was formed the same as also oil, and usually its extraction is conducted in parallel with an oil recovery from the same deposit. Natural gas consists basically of methane. It is considered that world's reserves of natural gas about same, as well as oil, but are measured they in other units cubic metre, instead of barrels.
The First place in the world on extraction of natural gas occupies the former USSR: in the late eighties here extracted about 650 billion in m 3 in a year. Further follow the USA (487 billion in m 3 ) Canada (96 billion in m 3 ), the Netherlands (80 billion in m 3 ) and Great Britain (45 billion in m 3 ). Natural gas is used mainly as fuel, both for household, and for the industrial purposes. Besides, these important raw materials for reception of the chemical products applied to manufacture of washing-up liquids, synthetic fibres, paints, plastic and synthetic rubber.
There, where the lack of natural gas is tested, artificial gas is used. As the basic raw materials for its reception coal at which roasting gas and coke is formed serves.
the Hydroelectric power
After fossil fuel water is not only the major, but also the most ancient energy source. Already more than 2000 are used the water wheels which set in motion by a current of the rivers and have become by the first energy source in industrial revolution of the end of a XVIII-th century.
Today power of water as an energy source is used for electricity manufacture, or the hydroelectric power. In modern hydroelectric power stations (HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION) include dams and the huge water basins providing a pressure from falling of water from the big height. Instead of bulky and ineffective water wheels on modern HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS turbines in which water stream rotates a rotor are established. The electrogenerator is connected to each turbine. It is considered that at use of all its possible sources it would be possible to receive 2,25 billion in kw of the hydroelectric power. On the beginning of 1990th it was developed only about 363 million in kw, or about 1% of energy made in the world.
The Largest HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS are constructed on the river Parana on border of Brazil and Paraguay (capacity of 12,6 million in kw), on the river Colombia in the USA and on the river Yenisei in Siberia (everyone by capacity of 6 million in kw).
The Major advantage of the hydroelectric power is use of inexhaustible resources. Thus, unlike burning of fossil fuel, atmosphere does not become soiled. However flooding of the big territories for creation of water basins harms to environment and breaks ecological balance.
the Atomic energy
From the moment of creation of a nuclear bomb in 1945 high hopes connected with use of atomic power stations (atomic power station) for maintenance of the basic share of world requirements for energy. On the beginning of 1990th of 435 operating atomic power stations developed nearby 1% of energy made in the world.
In a nuclear reactor warmly receive at splitting of atom of the radioactive element known as uranium-235. Heat allocated during nuclear reaction is used for manufacture of steam rotating the turbines for development of the electric power.
Isotope U-235 makes only 0,7% of all stocks of uranium. More than 99% are uranium-238. Stocks U-235, as well as fossil fuel, are not boundless. However by means of the so-called reactor-razmnozhitelja from U-238 it is possible to receive other radioactive element plutonium-239. If reactors-razmnozhiteli are extended, world's reserves of uranium will suffice on thousand years.
The Atomic energy has a number of advantages. It provides the economical expense of fuel: one ton U-235 gives to more energy, than 12 million barrels of oil. It is a pure kind of energy not polluting atmosphere.
But there are also lacks. Atomic power station building manages expensively. At their operation a dangerous radioactive waste is formed. In summary the nuclear failure similar to those that has occurred on the Chernobyl atomic power station in Ukraine in 1986, huge territories that will cause serious diseases and even death of people can be infected. After Chernobyl accident some countries have decided to close the atomic power stations.
Search of alternative inexhaustible energy sources is now conducted. Some of them are already developed. The wind power was used hundreds years for a navigation of ships and work of windmills. Modern wind turbines are intended for electricity manufacture. In only one California such 15 000 wind-driven generators are established. The American scientists have come to a conclusion that the strength of wind can provide development of all electric power made in the USA. Solar heat also can be transformed to energy. Solar collectors established on a roof can provide enough of energy for uninterrupted giving of hot water and building heating. Silicon fuel elements develop energy on spaceships.
Energy of inflow
For electricity manufacture have learnt to use and energy of inflow though many technical problems are connected with it. Sometimes waters of inflow can be detained by means of a dam and to force them to rotate turbines. The device named "э№Ёюъ" will transform movement of waves to energy.
The Geothermal electric power is developed by means of heat of bowels of the Earth. Most easier to use geothermal energy of hot wells and geysers. All over the world is 150 geothermal power stations which are in basic in the Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and the USA.
In 1991 to group of physicists-jadershchikov of Oxford (England) was possible to receive energy by means of nuclear synthesis. It is a question of reception of a safe kind of energy. Besides studying of new energy sources many countries are more and more convinced of advantages of its economy. There is a set of ways of power savings: a reliable thermal protection of buildings, refusal of an unjustified expenditure, transition to midget cars, and also increase of power efficiency of the industry at the expense of processing of scrap metal and other waste. These measures will allow to use more rationally power resources of a planet and considerably will reduce environmental contamination.