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the Communication facility

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Throughout millenia the Earth defined ways and intermedia between two points on the map. And though today artificial companions and the Internet allow to establish instantly a long-distance communication, scientists and engineers still take away to our planet a key role for a technical possibility to communicate on distance.

Today the information is instantly transferred by means of various means - from books and newspapers to telephone, a tele- and a radio communication, computers, disks and cartridges. However within many centuries for an exchange of data frequently it was required to overcome considerable distances. Almost impassable sites of district - high mountains, deserts and wide water spaces - complicated this process. Oral messages were partially forgotten, deformed or were simply not clear. Anybody precisely does not know, when and as for the first time there was a speech, but in the modern world exists more than 3000 basic languages, not including their numerous dialects.

With writing development there was more simple and reliable way of an exchange of messages between remote subscribers - on plates or other writing material. Now messages were not forgotten any more, and signatures and the wax press guaranteed their reliability and safety.

Meanwhile, development of new territories has begun, and the route choice frequently depended on climatic and landscape features of district. The few showed desire to appear in the chilled tundra or to wander on hot desert. A civilisation, considering necessity of maintenance of communication, selected the easiest ways which are passing on fertile plains along river and sea coasts where and to this day lives more than 75% of the population.


Mountain passes

Mountain passes the Occupied territories frequently have been divided by the mountain passes which had the important strategic value during wars and mass resettlements. During a number of centuries Hajbersky pass between Afghanistan and Pakistan served as collars from Europe and the Near East on peninsula Hindustan. Through this pass which has become by arena of many large battles, in the beginning there were caravans of camels, and then have been laid automobile and railways.

Fast rates writing developed. By 1000 d.C. in China and Japan there were reusable wooden cliches for printing. Pigments and paints received from the crushed minerals, breeds and extracts of plants.

About 1447 German printer Johann Gutenberg has invented demountable metal type-setting forms for the serial press that has led to press rapid development as information transmission media. On the huge areas in the North America, Scandinavia, in the north of Asia and in separate areas of the South America, Australia and New Zealand grow up trees with soft wood only for newsprint manufacturing.

The Fast, effective and reliable distant message became possible only, since 1820th with development of a network of railways. There were new technologies and methods of a lining of tunnels and building of bridges. But the basic obstacle still there were water spaces - sailing vessels here were unique means, both movement, and communications.


Wire communication

The Following jump in development of a communication facility - the telegraph invention in 1837 Englishmen William Cook and Charlzom Uitstonom. This idea Semjuel Morze has picked up in 1840th, created cable code (Morse alphabet), and in 1876 Alexander Grem Bell has invented phone that has allowed to transfer almost instantly speech messages on wires. Soon the network of telephone cables has captured all land. They could serve many long years after a lining, therefore such features of a relief as mountains and gorges, any more were not barriers to the message. Water obstacles as special vessels laid an underwater cable on a sea-bottom have been overcome also. The first transatlantic cable cable has been laid in 1866

The New stage of development of communication has had for 1890th when Gulelmo Marconi has invented a wireless communication assuming, as well as today, instead of wires installation of aerials and receivers on towers or tops of hills for reception of electromagnetic signals of radio-waves which differently could be blocked by high constructions or relief elements.


Transatlantic communication

Transatlantic communication Was considered also the form of the Earth. For the first session of transatlantic communication of Marconi has established the transmitter in Poldhu (a county Cornwall, England), and the receiver - to Saint Johns (a province Newfoundland, Canada). The distance between these settlements which are on different coast of Atlantic, taking into account curvature of the Earth makes 2700 km.

For years of the space age, which beginning it was necessary start of the USSR the first artificial companion of the Earth (artificial satellite) in 1957, into an orbit the set of the communication satellites transferring to radio - television and telephone signals worldwide has been deduced.

The Earth, as always, plays defining role in development of communication media: companions use its attraction to counterbalance the forces attracting them in a free space, and to remain in the necessary orbit. Carrier rockets at start are tilted on the east - in a direction of rotation of a planet that helps them to reach the speed necessary for a conclusion of companions into an orbit. Scientists continue search of new ways of use of the Earth for reliable communication maintenance between people.