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Atmosphere

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Atmosphere - a mix of the various gases surrounding the Earth. These gases provide a life to all live organisms.

Atmosphere gives us air and protects from harmful influence of solar beams. Thanks to the weight and terrestrial gravitation it is kept round a planet. Besides, the atmosphere layer (thickness about 480 km) serves as a board from bombardment by meteors wandering in space.


That such atmosphere?

Atmosphere consists of a mix of 10 various gases, mainly nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (21%). The remained one percent is necessary basically on argon plus small amounts of carbonic gas, helium and a neon. The given gases are inert (they do not enter chemical reactions with other substances). A tiny share of atmosphere sulphur dioxide, ammonia, carbonic oxide, ozone (related to oxygen make also gas) and water steams. And, at last, in atmosphere polluting substances, such as gaseous pollution, smoke particles, salt, a dust and volcanic ashes contain.


All above and above

This mix of gases and the smallest firm particles consists of four basic layers: tropospheres, stratospheres, mesospheres and thermospheres. The first layer - troposphere - is the most thin, coming to an end at height about 12 km over the earth. But even this ceiling is insuperable to planes which of 9-11 km fly, as a rule, at height. It is the warmest layer as solar beams are reflected from a terrestrial surface and heat up air. In process of removal from the earth air temperature falls to-55°S in the top part of troposphere.

Further there is a stratosphere which is stretched to height about 50 km over a surface. In the top part of troposphere there is an ozone layer. Here temperature above, than in troposphere as ozone detains a considerable part of pernicious ultra-violet radiation. However ecologists are disturbed by that polluting substances destroy this layer.

Over a stratosphere (50-70 km) there is a mesosphere. Within mesosphere, at temperature nearby-225°S, there is a mesopause - the coldest area of atmosphere. Here so it is cold that clouds are formed of ice which can be observed late at night when the coming sun highlights them from below.

The Meteors flying to the Earth, usually burn down in mesosphere. In spite of the fact that air here is very rarefied, the friction arising at collision of a meteor with molecules of oxygen, creates ultrahigh temperature.


On the brink of space

Last basic layer of atmosphere separating the Earth from space, is called as thermosphere. It is at height about 100 km from a terrestrial surface and consists of an ionosphere and magnitosfery.

Polar light In an ionosphere solar radiation causes ionisation. Here particles receive an electric charge. When they are carried by through atmosphere, it is possible to observe polar light being at the big height. Besides, the ionosphere reflects radio-waves, providing possibility of a distant radio communication.

It is Above located magnitosfera which represents external edge of a magnetic field of the Earth. It operates as a huge magnet and protects the Earth, catching particles of the big energy.

The Thermosphere has the least density among all layers, atmosphere gradually disappears and merges with a space.


the Wind and weather

Systems of formation of weather of all world are in troposphere. They result from joint influence on atmosphere of solar radiation and rotation of the Earth. The movement of air known as a wind, occurs, when warm air weights rise upwards, superseded by the cold. Air most of all gets warm on equator where the sun is in zenith, and becomes colder as approaching poles.

The Part of atmosphere filled with a life, is called as biosphere. It is stretched from height of the bird's flight to a surface and in depth of the earth and ocean. In biosphere borders there is a thin process of maintenance of balance between a vegetative and animal life.

Animals consume oxygen and exhale carbonic gas, which "тяш=№тр¦=" green plants as a result of photosynthesis, using energy of a sunlight for oxygen allocation in air. So the closed cycle on which the survival of all animals and plants depends is provided.


Threat for atmosphere

Atmosphere allowed to keep this natural balance during hundreds thousand years, however now this source of a life and protection is threatened seriously with consequences of activity of the person: a hotbed effect, global warming of a climate, air pollution, destruction of an ozone layer and acid rains.

As a result of the world industrialisation for last 200 years the gas balance of atmosphere was broke. Burning of fossil kinds of fuel (coal, oil, natural gas) has led to enormous emissions of dioxide of carbon and other gases, especially after occurrence of cars in the end of a XIX-th century. Progress in area agricultural technicians also has caused increase in quantity of methane and oksidov the nitrogen, arriving in atmosphere.


the Hotbed effect

These gases which are already present at atmosphere, detain warmly solar beams reflected from a surface. If they were not, on the Earth such cold would reign that oceans would freeze, and all live organisms would be lost.

However, when the maintenance "ярЁэшъют№§ урчют" increases because of air pollution, too heat considerable quantity is kept in atmosphere that leads to climate warming all over the world. As a result, only for last century the average temperature on a planet has increased on Celsius half-degree. Today scientists predict the further warming approximately on 1,5-4,5°С to the middle of this century.

By estimations, more than billion people (about one heel of the population of the Earth) breathes today air strongly infected with harmful gases. Basically it is a question of carbonic oxide and sulphurous anhydride. It became the reason of sharp increase in quantity of diseases of a thorax and lungs, especially among children and older persons.

Alarm causes and the increased quantity of the people suffering from a skin cancer. It is result of influence of the ultra-violet beams getting through the destroyed ozone layer.


Ozone gaps

The Ozone layer in a stratosphere protects us by absorption of ultra-violet solar beams. However wide application all over the world chlorine - and ftorsoderzhashchih hydrocarbons (HFU), used in aerosol ballonchikah and refrigerators, and also many kinds of household chemical goods and polystyrene has led to that in process of lifting upwards these gases break up and form chlorine which, in turn, destroys ozone.

Researchers of Antarctica have informed for the first time on this phenomenon in 1985 when over a southern hemisphere part the hole in an ozone layer was formed. If it occurs and in other places of a planet, we will be exposed to more intensive influence of harmful radiation. In 1995 scientists have informed a disturbing message about ozone gap occurrence over Arctic regions and a part of Northern Europe.


Acid rains

The Acid rain (including sulfuric and nitric acid) is formed as a result of reaction of sulphurous anhydride and nitrogen oxides (industrial polluting substances) with water steams in atmosphere. In places of loss of acid rains plants and animals perish. Cases when acid rains destroyed the whole woods are known. Moreover, acid rains get to lakes and the rivers, extending the fatal influence to the big areas and killing even the smallest forms of a life.

Infringements of natural balance of atmosphere are fraught with the extremely negative consequences. It is supposed that level of the World ocean will raise as a result of global warming, it will lead to flooding of lowlands of a land. Such cities as London and New York, can suffer from flooding. It will entail numerous a victim, occurrence of epidemics in connection with infection of water resources. The card of loss of rains will change, and huge territories will test a drought that will cause universal hunger. It it is necessary to pay off for all with a large quantity of human lives.


That else it is possible to make?

Today more and more people think of environment problems, and the governments of many countries of the world pay steadfast attention to ecology questions. Such problems as rational use of energy, dare on a global scale. If we consume less electric power and to go on some kilometres less, we will manage to reduce quantity of fossil kinds of the fuel used for manufacture of an electricity, gasoline and diesel fuel. In many countries work over use of alternative energy sources, including a wind power and a solar energy. However they yet soon can replace fossil fuel on a large scale.

Trees, as well as other plants, will transform carbonic gas to oxygen and play the vital role in regulation of the maintenance of hotbed gases in atmosphere. In the South America enormous quantities of a rainforest are cut down. Destruction of millions square kilometres of wood means receipt of smaller quantity of oxygen in atmosphere and a congestion bolshego quantities of the carbonic gas creating effect of a thermal trap.


the World campaigns

All over the world pass campaigns on purpose to convince the governments of the corresponding countries to stop destruction of rainforests. In some countries attempts to restore natural balance by encouragement and subsidising of a planting of trees are undertaken.

However we cannot be assured of cleanliness of air any more which we breathe. Thanks to pressure from outside the public, application HFU is gradually reduced, and instead of them alternative chemical substances are used. And nevertheless, atmosphere still in danger. It is necessary to provide the rigid control over actions of the person to guarantee "схчюсырёэюх" the future of our atmosphere.