The Third planet of Solar system, the Earth, represents an extensive field for scientific researches. Generated in the course of unique events, the Earth accumulates enormous experience of the past that is the integral basis for forecasting and the analysis of the phenomena of a life of a planet - earthquakes, flooding, eruptions of volcanoes, hurricanes, and many other things representing special aspect of existence, both the most heavenly body, and the vegetative it vegetative and animal worlds.
The Direct connection with industrial, economic, kulturotvorcheskoj and tehnotvorcheskoj activity of the person most can be in the best way reflected in system of knowledge of the Earth expressed in sciences about the nature - geography, geology, ecology, the physicist, and also in economy as mankind economic activities.
As the Ideological kernel of regular generalisation of knowledge of the Earth presence interpenetrating, cause and effect, relative and sinergeticheskih communications between each component of a planet and as a whole, between the subject of knowledge (person) and object of knowledge (a planet the Earth) serves.
The Phenomenon of self-organising of a life on a planet as a matter of fact inspires such sort of the relation, as the interest expressed in construction of system of scientific knowledge and disciplines, its studying.
The Given work opens some aspects of sciences about a planet the Earth, in a general plan, sciences about the nature, informing to the final reader the information on a planet origin, its structure and physical and chemical properties, opens value of the facts of history of the Earth in interrelation with developments and self-development of organisms.
The detailed analysis geographical, geological, klimatologicheskih is carried out, the economic and geoecological scientific data, allowing to build the received results in adequate and focused on achievement of positive knowledge of a scheme subject.
As Important difference of the given work work with an extensive astronomical material serves, namely the facts from history of space and development of directly planet of Solar system - the Earth are investigated and synthesised.
The Important place in work is taken away to consideration of various hypotheses about life occurrence on the Earth that makes one of the largest sections in research, also the great attention is given the statistical data and the facts, the certain records connected with achievement, to encyclopaedic data.
Work in a certain measure narrates not only about the past and the planet present, but also does certain forecasts for the future, consisting in recommendations about use of natural resources and measures of the prevention of spontaneous and technogenic accidents.
Distinctive feature of work is its economic validity in the light of ecological and managing problems on the Earth that makes, at least, one of the reasons, for a recognition of an urgency of the given research. The attention of the reader is turned on acknowledgement of development of scientific and technical progress (NTP) and by that underlines high potential of a planet for the further development.
Authors adhere to the optimistic point of view on a problem of a geographical and technical determinism that allows to look at the planet future as on self-improvement and progress process.
The Planet the Earth represents an infinite phenomenon for surprise, supervision and scientifically-practical, applied and theoretical interest, both from outside inhabitants, and from outside scientists and science officers.
The Question of early evolution of the Earth is closely connected with the theory of its origin. Today it is known that our planet was formed about 4,5 billion years ago. In the course of formation of the Earth from particles of a protoplanetary cloud its weight gradually increased. Gravity, and consequently, and speeds of the particles falling on a planet grew. Kinetic energy of particles turned to heat, and the Earth all was more strongly warmed up. At blows on it there were craters, and the substance thrown out from them could not overcome terrestrial gravitation any more and fell back.
The falling objects were larger, the more strongly they heated up the Earth. Energy of blow was released not on a surface, and on the depth equal approximately to two diameters of the taken root body. And as the great bulk at this stage was delivered to a planet by bodies in the size in some honeycombs of kilometres energy was allocated in a layer with thickness of an order of 1000 km. She had not time to be radiated in space, remaining in bowels of the Earth. As a result the temperature on depths of 100-1000 km could will come nearer to a melting point. Additional rise in temperature, possibly, disintegration korotkozhivushchih radioactive isotopes has caused.
Apparently, the first arisen rasplavy represented a mix liquid iron, nickel and sulphur. Rasplav collected, and then owing to higher density filtered downwards, gradually forming a terrestrial kernel. Thus, the differentiation (stratification) of substance of the Earth could begin at a stage of its formation. Shock processing of a surface and begun konvektsija, undoubtedly, interfered with this process. But the certain part of heavier substance nevertheless was in time will fall under a mixed layer. In turn the differentiation on density stopped konvektsiju and was accompanied by additional allocation of heat, accelerating process of formation of various zones in the Earth.
Presumably the kernel was formed for some honeycombs millions years. At gradual cooling of a planet rich with nickel zhelezonikelevyj an alloy having a heat of fusion, the beginnings kristalizovyvatsja - so the firm internal kernel has (probably arisen. By this time it makes 1,7% of weight of the Earth. In the fused external kernel it is concentrated about 30% of terrestrial weight.
Development of other covers proceeded much longer and in certain respects has not ended till now.
Development of other covers proceeded much longer and in certain respects has not ended till now. Litosfera right after the formation had a small thickness and was very unstable. It was again absorbed by a cloak, collapsed during an epoch of so-called great bombardment (from 4,2 to 3,9 billion years ago) when the Earth, as well as the Moon, was exposed to blows very large and enough numerous meteorites. On the Moon and today it is possible to see certificates of meteoric bombardment - numerous craters and the seas (the areas filled with streamed magma). On our planet active tectonic processes and influence of atmosphere and hydrosphere have practically erased traces of this period.
About 3,8 billion years ago there was the first easy and, hence, "an unsinkable" granite bark. At that time the planet already had an air cover and oceans; gases necessary for their formation were strenuously delivered from bowels of the Earth during the previous period. Atmosphere then consisted basically of carbonic gas, nitrogen and water steams. Oxygen in it was a little, but it was developed as a result of, first, photochemical dissotsiatsii water and, secondly, photosynthesizing activity of simple organisms, such as blue-green seaweed.
600 million years ago on the Earth there were some the mobile continental plates rather similar on modern. The new supercontinent Pangeja has appeared much later. It existed 300-200 million years ago, and then has broken up to parts which have generated present continents.
What waits the Earth in the future? It is possible to answer this question only with the big degree of uncertainty, abstracting as from possible external, space influence, and from activity of mankind, reformative environment, and not always to the best.
Eventually bowels of the Earth will cool down to such degree that konvektsija in cloaks and, hence, movement of continents (so also mountain building, eruption of volcanoes, zemljatrjasenija) gradually oslabnut and will stop. Aeration will erase in due course roughnesses of earth crust, and the planet surface will disappear under water. Its further destiny will be defined by mid-annual temperature. If it considerably goes down, the ocean will freeze also the Earth will become covered by an ice crust. If the temperature raises (and most likely to it and will result vozrastjushchaja luminosity of the Sun) water will evaporate, having bared an equal surface of a planet. Obviously, neither in that, nor in other case the mankind life on the Earth will be already impossible, at least in our modern representation about it.